Hasidic women customarily wear a head covering after they get married. There are various types of head coverings, and each type is different not only in appearance, but also in degree of stringency. Yet the headgear doesn’t really reflect a woman’s piety, because it is determined by what the family tradition is. What the mother wears, the daughter wears. On occasion, a woman may choose to deviate from the family headgear. Or it can happen that parents agree on a different headgear at the time the marriage is arranged, per the engagement negotiations. I think it is fair to say that a family’s headgear is a factor (among other factors) that is taken into consideration when a match is arranged.


Of course, headgear have gone through many changes in the world of Hasidic fashion. While the main elements remained constant, hat styles, wig styles and scarf styles have varied widely over the years.
It is interesting to note that in Hasidic vocabulary people often refer to families based on headgear tradition. For example “they are a hat family” as a description of a family if the mother and married daughters wear hats on their wigs, or “they are a shpitzel family” etc. That’s because, as I said earlier, headgear reflects a socio-religious status in the community. Any family that wears any type of scarf headgear (there are a few types, see below) can be a “tichel family”, tichel being Yiddish for scarf.While some sects are likely to have more of one headgear than another (i.e., shpitzel would be more common in Satmar and a frisette in Skver) the headgear does not symbolize affiliation with a particular sect.

Headgear are generally worn outside of the house. At home or near the home, a woman wears a more comfortable turban or pre-tied scarf called a bandana. These turbans/scarves/bandanas are chosen to fashionably match the woman’s housecoat.

THE LIST OF HEADGEAR:

Note: I’ve tried to organize the list of headgear by degree of stringency, from most stringent to least stringent. If there were slight variations in the headgear style that do not reflect variations in stringency, then I did not give it a separate entry, in order to make it clear that the piety level is equal. (And even with this degree of detail, we are still not covering everything. There’s more to say about headgear on holidays versus weekdays, but let’s get an overall sense instead of nitpicking details.)

We begin with most pious:


Plain Black Scarf: Only a black scarf. This is very Israeli and is not common in Williamsburg.

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Plain Print Scarf: Only a printed scarf tied over the head.

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Shpitzel: The first layer is a net over the head, with some type of weaving at the net’s edges, to frame the face from ear to ear. There’s another layer of turban liner for height, and a scarf on top, which is tied in the back and kept in place with pins. The scarf is often silk, fashionable and designer, and folded so the desirable colors show in the front.

Variations:
Aroifebinden – when the ends of the scarf are tied back up
Aroopgebinden – when the ends of the scarf hang down

Another variation that DOES vary by degree of piety:
Imgedri’vlt – when the shpitzel itself (the part of the thin first layer that shows only in front) is made of a flat, silk-like fabric.
Gedri’vlt – when the shpitzel layer that shows is made of synthetic hairs. This is less stringent.

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Shpitzel and a Hat: This is rare. I recall when I did see it the women who wore it were from rabbinic families. The ensemble is that piece of shpitzel weaving with a hat on top of it.

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Front or Frisette: Interestingly, the term frisette seems to originate from the Frenchfrisette and is indeed similar in style. The first layer is a short wig with bangs or other style of the wig above the forehead. Only the front of the wig shows. This layer is followed by the same elements of the shpitzel: a turban for height, and a scarf.

Variations:
Aroifebinden-when the ends of the scarf are tied back up
Aroopgebinden-when the ends of the scarf hang down

PS: This is the headgear I wore when I was Hasidic.

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Front/Frisette with a back: This is the same as a frisette, but instead of just showing wig in the front, we see the wig in the front and back. I’ve seen many of those in Skver, very few in Kiryas Joel.

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Sheitel and a Hat: This is a short wig with a stylish hat on top. Only the front and sides of the wig show.

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Sheitel and a Hat with a back: Here the wig shows in the back as well, although some women will show only an inch while others will show a few more liberal inches. The wig often goes behind the ears.

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A SnoodA full wig with a very wide headband that covers most of the wig.

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A Band: A full wig with a headband.

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A Hoyle Sheitel or Uncovered: A wig with no covering.

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The last is considerate very liberal headgear in Williamsburg, and women are often asked not to enter a synagogue uncovered.

In Williamsburg wigs (especially the covered wigs) are usually a blend of synthetic and human hair and they only come down to the shoulders.

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In many ways, I think of Vien’s girls’ school building as an excellent example of the rich and colorful history of Williamsburg. Jewish Williamsburg was influenced by three waves of Jewish immigration. Roughly: I. rich German Jews that settled in the first half of the 1800s, II. Eastern European Jews who emigrated in the years from approximately 1880 until the immigration quotas were passed in 1921 and 1924, and III. post holocaust Hasidic Jews who came to America from Nazi ravaged Europe. These groups all shaped Williamsburg and made it what it is today, but they did not successfully coexist, and instead replaced each other and built on what the previous group left.

I: The Hanover Club 
The Vien building was first the Hawley Mansion and then remodeled for the exclusive Hanover Club. It’s not clear to me what the Club’s relationship to the German Jewish community was, but the building was certainly part of the era in which Williamsburg was an upperclass community with Exclusive clubs, societies and various religious institutions. While I do not know if Jews were part of the club, the German Jews certainly had a presence on the rich Bedford Avenue. Temple Israel of The Union Temple was only a mile away from the Hanover Club, and was build in 1891, only a year after the club organized. According to Brownstoner “Temple Israel was a vital part of the German Jewish community in Bedford for another twenty some years.”

Here’s the club on Bedford:

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Here’s a little bit about the club, from the Brooklyn Public Library blog:
The club was organized on March 7, 1890.  P. J. Lauritzen, architect, was engaged to remodel and enlarge the “Hawley house,” a  brick mansion that had been the residence of Oscar Hawley, a box manufacturer,  and had cost $70,000 to build. The club house formally opened on Jan 19, 1891 with over 400 members.  During the club’s halcyon years around the turn of the 20th century, aces of the billiard table such as  George F. Townsend and J. Byron Stark put their misspent youths to good account in closely watched tournaments. The club’s bowling alley was generously made available to the ladies during the afternoon hours, and the ladies were also allowed their own cafe, in which no man was allowed unless accompanied by a lady. No opportunity for a good dinner was missed.  
“Thumbbit dinners” given around 1901, which required members to wear butcher’s aprons and hats and to eat slabs of steak laid on slices of bread, seem to have delighted the Hanover carnivores. The association’s name must surely have morphed into “Hangover Club” more than once among the wags of the Eastern District.—-
In any record I found about the Hanover Club or of the time of wealth in Williamsburg, the reader is immediately told that the Club was displaced by the next wave of Jewish migration. Eastern European Jews poured in from the Lower East Side when theWilliamsburg Bridge was built, changing the neighborhood to a crowded and poorer one. The upwardly mobile German Jews did not stay, they removed to different parts of Brooklyn and Manhattan.

From “New York Jews and the Great Depression” we get this on the shift from affluent area to lowerclass poor neighborhood:

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II: Young Israel
With the shift from the affluent Bedford Avenue to overcrowded lower class immigrant society in which Bedford Avenue became increasingly “a manufacturing” area, the building in discussion went over to Young Israel. They bought it in 1922 for $50,000. Many people tell me they remember when Young Israel thrived in Williamsburg. Young Israel was a product of the Eastern European immigrant population’s efforts to preserve Orthodoxy in a country that made religiosity a great challenge. Many poor Jews, struggling to survive and feed themselves, had to work on shabbes and eat non-Kosher. Amid concerns of integration and survival, they often dropped the religious observances of their European homes. Additionally, there was a cultural gap between the immigrant population and their American-born offsprings. The American children often assimilated or integrated into American society and they did not feel at home in the Yiddish speaking and immigrant religious synagogues and yeshivas. Young Israel tried to answer that problem by offering a more liberal Orthodoxy to young American Jews. In the words of Young Israel:

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“To appreciate the role of the Young Israel movement in North America, one must understand the circumstances which led to its creation in 1912 and the forces and events which have influenced its subsequent development. For today’s religious Jews, the conditions under which North American Jewry lived during the early decades of this century are almost unimaginable. Because practically all jobs required work on Saturday, Shabbos observance was rare and typically required extraordinary sacrifice.

The primary aspirations which most Jewish parents held for their children were for economic success and acceptance in American Society, Jewish education was very low on their list of priorities, and as a result, was usually rudimentary, at best. Orthodox synagogues were exclusively Yiddish-speaking and dominated by an Eastern European atmosphere. American-raised Jewish youth who wandered into these synagogues typically found themselves shut out completely. Thus it was not surprising that many Jewish youth of the era generally avoided the synagogue, attending only when required by family custom. Although intermarriage was relatively rare, the loss of young Jewish hearts and minds to Jewish belief and practice as we understand it today was almost universal in that era. It was in this environment that Young Israel was founded by a group of 15 visionary young men and woman.”
Note: I’m not sure if woman is singular intentionally or in error.

In other words, Young Israel brought Orthodoxy to a new generation of Jews, creating a hybrid of more modern American elements combined with Eastern European Orthodoxy. One synagogue member, quoted in “New York’s Jewish Jews“, said the partition between men and women was lowered, women were actively involved, and there was a rule against shnuddering! (sh’nadar. Hebrew. literally means he will pledge. It is a process of pledging when called for aliyah)

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Young Israel’s presence in Williamsburg mostly dwindled when Satmar settled there after the war. Satmar slowly changed the character of Williamsburg from Orthodox to more homogeneously Hasidic. While Young Israel is no longer at this location, you can still walk to the building at Bedford Avenue corner Rodney Street and see that “Young Israel” is inscribed over its door.

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III: Congregation Vien
The building is now occupied by the Vien’s girls school. Vien is originally from Vienna, non-Hasidic European territory, and is an excellent example of the ways Hasidism either displaced or influenced Orthodox groups. While many Orthodox Jews left Williamsburg when the post-war Hasidic community settled there in overwhelming numbers, Vien stayed with a significant presence. With time it got to resemble the Hasidic community in many ways. Here’s George Kranzler in “Hasidic Williamsburg: A Contemporary American Hasidic Community”

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Today, Vien resembles other sects in many ways, and they are one of the groups that make South Williamsburg “Hasidic Williamsburg.” 

According to a Facebook friend Esther M. who attended this Vien girls’ school for twelve years, “The building was fascinating. I still remember when one of the floors was a pretty big synagogue (from Young Israel I assume). In our high school years we figured out how to access the attic and found newspapers and articles of clothing over 50 years old.

“There was also this myth circulating among the students that it used to be one of Rockefeller’s mansions.. We had these elaborate ornaments and fireplaces all over the building. When I was editor of our school newsletter I tried researching it but couldn’t come up with any evidence to support it”

Another friend Rose F. also attended this school and remembers best its attic, which was converted into classrooms. She also notes its beauty, as it was filled with relics of an affluent past.

UPDATE: Pictures of the interior.

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This is a really interesting example of how many phases Williamsburg has been through it its rich history. Once upon a time, the Skverer Yeshiva in Williamsburg on Heyward Street was home to America’s Wonder Bread factory. They used to make Twinkies, too, as both Wonder and Hostess were owned by a baking conglomerate called Continental Baking. 

Twitter user TrafficAdvisory writes “I grew up in Williamsburgh Brooklyn when #hostess and #wonderbread were there on Heyward Street and the shop on Middleton Street free stuff.”

According to Shulem Deen, a former Skver Hasid, when he was in this Yeshiva there was still the enormous conveyor oven from the Wonder Bread factory. Says Deen “When I was teenager here (1988-1990), a couple of us found a hidden door in the basement area, which led into an *enormous* space, dark and empty except for a long, dusty, rusted conveyor oven. It was like something I’d never seen before, and it amazed us to stumble upon this relic of an iconic American breadmaking factory, right underneath our ‘bes medrish’.”

It would be great to get a picture of the oven if it is still there, a relic of the past, transitioned into such a different environment! 

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A visitor in Williamsburg told me today:


I once stumbled upon the Hasidic community – I think it was Williamsburg – when I mistakenly got off the train at the wrong stop. It was shabbes, but I needed to get to my location, so I used my phone;s GPS. So I’m walking the streets and looking at my phone and following the directions, and a Hasidic man suddenly stops me and says–
“My air condition… eh…eh… it’s not working…”So I didn’t know what to do. I was in a dilemma. Do I tell him I’m Jewish and can’t be his shabbes goy? But I have my phone out — and I’m busy with my GPS on shabbes? I could just go in and fix his air condition or get whatever he needs done and not tell him anything, but would that be dishonest? Do I need to tell him?

I said: “I’m so sorry– I can’t do it. See, I’m Jewish.”

And he immediately answered “of course, sure, sure! Git shabbes, git shabbes!” and off I went with my GPS.

When the Williamsburg Bridge was built in 1903, Jewish immigrants spilled in from the Lower East Side. So much so, it was called “The Jew’s Bridge.” This migration across the river greatly attributed to the settlement of Williamsburg by orthodox Jews, and set the stage for Hasidim from Hungary and surrounding areas to settle there too when they came to America, seeking a religious environment to rebuild after the holocaust. 

“The bridge’s opening caused a flood of migration. A mass of Williamsburg’s former Irish and German population (who called the area “Kleine Deutschland,” Little Germany) moved to Queens when Jewish immigrants from the Lower East Side moved in. The Williamsburg Bridge became known as the “Jews’ Bridge”. (Brooklyn Ink)

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Image: bridge in 1902 during construction. Wikimedia Commons
Here’s a silent black and white video of the opening of the Williamsburg Bridge. Everyone wore hats, and almost everyone was male!